The conversion of an agricultural economy into an industrial economy that leads to manufacturing and selling of goods, explains the term Industrialization. Not only the traditional agricultural societies underwent transfiguration, one could see a vast change in social, political, educational, cultural and religious arenas. This further metamorphosed into urbanisation and occupational changes.
The origin can be traced back to Great Britain in the mid period of eighteenth century. The previous set up was rural and witnessed small communities with low per capita income and an economy dependent on simple tools. Gradually, development period set in as Britain was blessed with abundant natural resources like coal and iron which paved the way for industrial development. Moreover Britain being a politically stable and colonial nation proved a boon for all and could serve as a prospective market as well.
The earlier predominant agrarian society that used simple machines and hand tools at home was finally replaced with powered machines. Large scale production replaced small scale production wherein big factories were set up. Transportation, communication, banking and employment opportunities also improved. The quality of life started improving for one and all. Thus the advantages were too many. The diseases and problems prevalent in societies at that time were gradually eradicated. The role of woman also was changed as she became a working woman from a homemaker. There was a significant growth in farming due to the contributions made by industrialization. The whole society was undergoing a sea change with the advent of industrialization.
One could see that steam locomotives began to be used instead of horsewagons. At this time communication also needed to be developed so the first electrical telegraph was developed. This also made life easier. The first stock Exchange was also set up due to industrialization. Finally a system which depicted less interference of government and more of private ownerships was visible.
Yet the disadvantages were no less as there were many health hazards due to long working hours in the factories. It also led to pollution and many new kinds of diseases were caused. The cities became overcrowded as many workers moved from rural areas. The life style was completely transfigured and one could see a lot of change in beliefs and morality.
Having reaped the fruits of industrialization, we, as literate and civilised citizens of this global world have a great responsibility on ourselves to protect the environment and also have a quality life, free of health hazards and diseases. It is up to us what we intend to leave for the generations to come!!